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Скульптура Древнего Египта. Скульптура древнего египта видео


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    Скульптура египта видео - Лепка.рф

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    1. Хатшепсут – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu, Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, according to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as the first great woman in history of whom we are informed. Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose and her husband Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a secondary wife named Mutnofret, who carried the title Kings daughter and was probably a child of Ahmose I. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure, Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manethos king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis who has identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however. Her fathers reign began in either 1526 or 1506 BC according to the high and low estimates of her reign, the length of the reigns of Tuthmosis I and Tuthmosis II, however, cannot be determined with absolute certainty. With short reigns, Hatshepsut would have ascended the throne 14 years after the coronation of Tuthmosis I, longer reigns would put her ascension 25 years after Tuthmosis Is coronation. Thus, Hatshepsut could have assumed power as early as 1512 BC, or, Hatshepsut established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, thereby building the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt and this trading expedition to Punt was roughly during Hatshepsuts ninth year of reign. It set out in her name with five ships, each measuring 70 feet long bearing several sails, many trade goods were bought in Punt, notably frankincense and myrrh. Hatshepsuts delegation returned from Punt bearing 31 live myrrh trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees and it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her mortuary temple complex. Egyptians also returned with a number of gifts from Punt

    2. Тутмос III – Thutmose III was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first 22 years of Thutmoses reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, while he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. He served as the head of her armies, during the final 2 years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III, when Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by a secondary wife and his fathers great royal wife was Queen Hatshepsut. Her daughter Neferure was Thutmoses half-sister, Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship. Her rule was quite prosperous and marked by great advancements, when he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. Thutmosis III had several wives, Satiah, She may have been the mother of his firstborn son, an alternative theory is that the boy was the son of Neferure. Thutmoses successor, the prince and future king Amenhotep II, was the son of Merytre-Hatshepsut. Additional children include Menkheperre and daughters named Nebetiunet, Meryetamun, Meryetamun, Merytre-Hatshepsut was the daughter of the divine adoratrice Huy. Nebtu, she is depicted on a pillar in Thutmose IIIs tomb, menwi, Merti, Menhet three foreign wives. Neferure, Thutmose III may have married his half-sister, but there is no evidence for this marriage. It has been suggested that Neferure, instead of Satiah, may have been the mother of Amenemhat, Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BC to 1425 BC according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt. This has been the conventional Egyptian chronology in academic circles since the 1960s and this document has no note of the place of observation, but it can safely be assumed that it was taken in either a Delta city such as Memphis or Heliopolis, or in Thebes. These two latitudes give dates 20 years apart, the High and Low chronologies, respectively, the length of Thutmose IIIs reign is known to the day thanks to information found in the tomb of the military commander Amenemheb-Mahu. Amenemheb-Mahu records Thutmose IIIs death to his masters 54th regnal year, widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III made 16 raids in 20 years. He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypts greatest conqueror or the Napoleon of Egypt and he is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first Pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates and his campaign records were transcribed onto the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak, and are now transcribed into Urkunden IV

    3. Фараон – The word pharaoh ultimately derive from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 great house, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr house and ˤ3 column, here meaning great or high. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 Courtier of the High House, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom, after the rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm. f, the term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the pharaoh being attached to a rulers name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun and this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives, by this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה, from that, Septuagint φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Quran likewise spells it فرعون firawn with n, interestingly, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelt it Pharao, but the King James Bible revived Pharaoh with h from the Hebrew, meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and then rro. Scepters and staves were a sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, the earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period, another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head, the earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty

    4. Большой сфинкс – Facing directly from West to East, it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre, cut from the bedrock, the original shape of the Sphinx has been restored with layers of blocks. It measures 238 feet long from paw to tail,66.3 ft high from the base to the top of the head and 62.6 feet wide at its rear haunches. It is the oldest known sculpture in Egypt and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafre. The Sphinx is a monolith carved into the bedrock of the plateau, the nummulitic limestone of the area consists of layers which offer differing resistance to erosion, leading to the uneven degradation apparent in the Sphinxs body. The lowest part of the body, including the legs, is solid rock, the body of the lion up to its neck is fashioned from softer layers that have suffered considerable disintegration. The layer in which the head was sculpted is much harder, the Great Sphinx is one of the worlds largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it are still subject to debate, such as when it was built, by whom and for what purpose. These questions have resulted in the idea of the Riddle of the Sphinx. In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx was called Hor-em-akhet, the English word sphinx comes from the ancient Greek Σφίγξ apparently from the verb σφίγγω, after the Greek sphinx who strangled anyone who failed to answer her riddle. The name may alternatively be a corruption of the phonetically different ancient Egyptian word Ssp-anx. This name is given to royal statues of the Fourth dynasty of ancient Egypt, medieval Arab writers, including al-Maqrīzī, call the Sphinx balhib and bilhaw, which suggest a Coptic influence. The modern Egyptian Arabic name is أبو الهول, the circumstantial evidence mentioned by Hassan includes the Sphinxs location in the context of the funerary complex surrounding the Second Pyramid, which is traditionally connected with Khafra. A diorite statue of Khafre, which was discovered buried upside down along with other debris in the Valley Temple, is claimed as support for the Khafra theory, the Dream Stele, erected much later by the pharaoh Thutmose IV, associates the Sphinx with Khafra. When the stele was discovered, its lines of text were already damaged and incomplete, an extract was translated, which we bring for him, oxen. and all the young vegetables, and we shall give praise to Wenofer. Khaf. the statue made for Atum-Hor-em-Akhet, the Egyptologist Thomas Young, finding the Khaf hieroglyphs in a damaged cartouche used to surround a royal name, inserted the glyph ra to complete Khafras name. When the Stele was re-excavated in 1925, the lines of text referring to Khaf flaked off and were destroyed. In 1857, Auguste Mariette, founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, unearthed the much later Inventory Stela, such an act became common when religious institutions such as temples, shrines and priests domains were fighting for political attention and for financial and economic donations. Gaston Maspero, the French Egyptologist and second director of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and he supports this by suggesting that Khafras Causeway was built to conform to a pre-existing structure, which, he concludes, given its location, could only have been the Sphinx

    5. Ра – Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian sun god. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become a god in ancient Egyptian religion. In later Egyptian dynastic times, Ra was merged with the god Horus and he was believed to rule in all parts of the created world, the sky, the earth, and the underworld. He was associated with the falcon or hawk, when in the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra as Amun-Ra. During the Amarna Period, Akhenaten suppressed the cult of Ra in favor of another deity, the Aten, the deified solar disc. The cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis, all forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra, who called each of them into existence by speaking their secret names. Alternatively man was created from Ras tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the Cattle of Ra, in the myth of the Celestial Cow it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them. When she became bloodthirsty she was pacified by drinking beer mixed with red dye, to the Egyptians, the sun represented light, warmth, and growth. This made the sun deity very important, as the sun was seen as the ruler of all that he created, the sun disk was either seen as the body or eye of Ra. Ra was the father of Shu and Tefnut, whom he created, Shu was the god of the wind, and Tefnut was the goddess of the rain. Sekhmet was the Eye of Ra and was created by the fire in Ras eye, Ra was thought to travel on the Atet, two solar barks called the Mandjet or morning boat and the Mesektet or evening boat. These boats took him on his journey through the sky and the Duat, while Ra was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form. When Ra traveled in his sun boat, he was accompanied by other deities including Sia and Hu. Sometimes, members of the Ennead helped him on his journey, including Set, who overcame the serpent Apophis, and Mehen, when Ra was in the underworld, he would visit all of his various forms. Apophis, the god of chaos, was a serpent who attempted to stop the sun boats journey every night by consuming it or by stopping it in its tracks with a hypnotic stare. During the evening, the Egyptians believed that Ra set as Atum or in the form of a ram, the night boat would carry him through the underworld and back towards the east in preparation for his rebirth. When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris, the god of the dead, Ra was worshipped as the Creator god among some ancient Egyptians, specifically followers of his cult at Heliopolis. It was believed that Ra wept, and from his tears came man and these cult-followers believed that Ra was self-created, while followers of Ptah believed that Ra was created by Ptah

    6. Анубис – Anubis or Anpu is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head. Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts, depicted as a protector of graves as early as the First Dynasty, Anubis was also an embalmer. By the Middle Kingdom he was replaced by Osiris in his role as lord of the underworld, one of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. He attended the weighing scale during the Weighing of the Heart, despite being one of the most ancient and one of the most frequently depicted and mentioned gods in the Egyptian pantheon, Anubis played almost no role in Egyptian myths. Anubis was depicted in black, a color that symbolized both rebirth and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming, Anubis is associated with Wepwawet, another Egyptian god portrayed with a dogs head or in canine form, but with grey or white fur. Historians assume that the two figures were eventually combined and his daughter is the serpent goddess Kebechet. Anubis is a Greek rendering of this gods Egyptian name, in Egypts Early Dynastic period, Anubis was portrayed in full animal form, with a jackal head and body. A jackal god, probably Anubis, is depicted in stone inscriptions from the reigns of Hor-Aha, Djer, the oldest known textual mention of Anubis is in the Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom, where he is associated with the burial of the pharaoh. In the Old Kingdom, Anubis was the most important god of the dead and he was replaced in that role by Osiris during the Middle Kingdom. In the Roman era, which started in 30 BC, tomb paintings depict him holding the hand of deceased persons to them to Osiris. The parentage of Anubis varied between myths, times and sources, in early mythology, he was portrayed as a son of Ra. In the Coffin Texts, which were written in the First Intermediate Period, another tradition depicted him as the son of his father Ra and mother Nephthys. George Hart sees this story as an attempt to incorporate the independent deity Anubis into the Osirian pantheon, an Egyptian papyrus from the Roman period simply called Anubis the son of Isis. In the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt became a Hellenistic kingdom ruled by Greek pharaohs, Anubis was merged with the Greek god Hermes, the two gods were considered similar because they both guided souls to the afterlife. The center of this cult was in uten-ha/Sa-ka/ Cynopolis, a place whose Greek name means city of dogs, in Book XI of The Golden Ass by Apuleius, there is evidence that the worship of this god was continued in Rome through at least the 2nd century. Indeed, Hermanubis also appears in the alchemical and hermetical literature of the Middle Ages, in contrast to real wolves, Anubis was a protector of graves and cemeteries. Several epithets attached to his name in Egyptian texts and inscriptions referred to that role, the Jumilhac papyrus recounts another tale where Anubis protected the body of Osiris from Set. Set attempted to attack the body of Osiris by transforming himself into a leopard, Anubis stopped and subdued Set, however, and he branded Sets skin with a hot iron rod

    7. Хасехемуи – Khasekhemwy was the final king of the Second dynasty of Egypt. Little is known of Khasekhemwy, other than that he led several significant military campaigns and built monuments, still extant. His name means The Two Powerful Ones Appear, according to Toby Wilkinsons study of the Palermo Stone in Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, this near contemporary 5th dynasty document assigns Khasekhemwy a reign of 17.5 or nearly 18 full years. Since the cattle count is shown to be regularly biennial during the dynasty from the Palermo Stone. Khasekhemwy is normally placed as the successor of Seth-Peribsen, though some Egyptologists believe that another Pharaoh, Khasekhem, most scholars, however, believe Khasekhem and Khasekhemwy are, in fact, the same person. Khasekhem may have changed his name to Khasekhemwy after he reunited Upper and Lower Egypt after a war between the followers of the gods Horus and Set. Others believe he defeated the king, Seth-Peribsen, after returning to Egypt from putting down a revolt in Nubia. Either way he ended the infighting of the Second dynasty and reunited Egypt, Khasekhemwy is unique in Egyptian history as having both the symbols of Horus and Set on his serekh. Some Egyptologists believe that this was an attempt to unify the two factions, but after his death, Set was dropped from the serekh permanently and he was the earliest Egyptian king known to have built statues of himself. Khasekhemwy apparently undertook considerable building projects upon the reunification of Egypt and he built in stone at el-Kab, Hierakonpolis, and Abydos. He apparently built a unique, as well as huge, tomb at Abydos, the trapezoidal tomb measures some 70 meters in length and is 17 meters wide at its northern end, and 10 meters wide at its southern end. This area was divided into 58 rooms, prior to some recent discoveries from the 1st dynasty, its central burial chamber was considered the oldest masonry structure in the world, being built of quarried limestone. Here, the excavators discovered the kings scepter of gold and sard, as well as beautifully made small stone pots with gold leaf lid coverings. In fact, Petrie detailed a number of items removed during the excavations of Amélineau, other items included flint tools, as well as a variety of copper tools and vessels, stone vessels and pottery vessels filled with grain and fruit. There were also small, glazed objects, carnelian beads, model tools, basketwork, Khasekhemwy built a fort at Nekhen, and at Abydos and was buried there in the necropolis at Umm el-Qaab. He may also have built the Gisr el-Mudir at Saqqara, Khasekhemwys wife was Queen Nimaethap, mother of the Kings Children. They were the parents of Djoser and Djosers wife Hetephernebti and its also possible that Khasekhemwys son was Sanakhte. Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, The Palermo Stone, Egypt, Khasekhem/Khasekhemwy of Egypts 2nd dynasty

    8. Абидос – Abydos /əˈbaɪdɒs/ is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city. It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26°10 N, in the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju. The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the city of Abydos on the Hellespont. These tombs began to be seen as extremely significant burials and in times it became desirable to be buried in the area. Today, Abydos is notable for the temple of Seti I. It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti Is father, the Great Temple and most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the structures and the artifacts within them are considered irretrievable and lost. Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, whose town, temple, the temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down to the times of the thirtieth dynasty, and the cemetery was used continuously. The pharaohs of the first dynasty were buried in Abydos, including Narmer, who is regarded as founder of the first dynasty and it was in this time period that the Abydos boats were constructed. Some pharaohs of the dynasty were also buried in Abydos. The temple was renewed and enlarged by these pharaohs as well, funerary enclosures, misinterpreted in modern times as great forts, were built on the desert behind the town by three kings of the second dynasty, the most complete is that of Khasekhemwy. From the fifth dynasty, the deity Khentiamentiu, foremost of the Westerners, Pepi I constructed a funerary chapel which evolved over the years into the Great Temple of Osiris, the ruins of which still exist within the town enclosure. Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Isis and Osiris cult, during the First Intermediate Period, the principal deity of the area, Khentiamentiu, began to be seen as an aspect of Osiris, and the deities gradually merged and came to be regarded as one. Khentiamentius name became an epithet of Osiris, King Mentuhotep II was the first one building a royal chapel. In the twelfth dynasty a gigantic tomb was cut into the rock by Senusret III, associated with this tomb was a cenotaph, a cult temple and a small town known as Wah-Sut, that was used by the workers for these structures. Next to that cenotaph were buried kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty, the building during the eighteenth dynasty began with a large chapel of Ahmose I. The Pyramid of Ahmose I was also constructed at Abydos—the only pyramid in the area, thutmose III built a far larger temple, about 130 ft ×200 ft. He also made a way leading past the side of the temple to the cemetery beyond

    9. Коптос – Qift is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile. In ancient Egypt, Qift, known then as Gebtu, was an important center for administration, religion, from Qift and Qus, trading expeditions heading for the Red Sea and many mining expeditions into the Eastern Desert left the Nile Valley. Gebtu was at the starting-point of the two great routes leading to the coast of the Red Sea, the one toward the port Tââou. Gebtu was the most important religious center in the area and its principal male deity was Min, a sky-god whose symbol was a thunderbolt. He became a fertility deity, and also was regarded as the male deity of the desert region to the east. His cult rose to prominence in the Middle Kingdom, at that time, he became associated with Horus as the deity, Min-Horus. Later, he was fused with Amen in the deity Min-Amen-ka-Mut-ef, Gebtu, once politically important, especially under the eleventh dynasty, was overshadowed by Thebes. It recuperated its prominence under the Antonines, it was the camp of Legio III Cyrenaica. It rebelled, but soon was captured in 292 by Diocletian after a siege and almost destroyed. In the 6th century, Qift was renamed Justinianopolis, like other cities. Under the Muslim caliphs and the sultans, Qift remained one of the cities of Upper Egypt. In the 13th century, there still were numerous monasteries around the city, Qift was ruined in the 16th century by the Ottomans. Qift was the focus of an American archaeological project from 1987 to 1992, the undecorated northern temple of Min and Isis dates to the Ptolemaic period. Earlier structures on the date back to the Middle Kingdom. The temple was rebuilt during the Ptolemaic Period, the later work has been attributed to an official named Sennuu-shepsi on behalf of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. This northern temple has some additions by Ptolemy IV Philopator ruling from 221-205 BC. He was the son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt and was the pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Egypt. More additions were added by Julio-Claudian emperors of Rome, Caligula, the second pylon still carries the dedication text of Nero, and the cartouche of Caligula appears on the north end of this structure

    10. Хеб-сед – The Sed festival was an ancient Egyptian ceremony that celebrated the continued rule of a pharaoh. The name is taken from the name of an Egyptian wolf god and this tail might have been the vestige of a previous ceremonial robe made out of a complete animal skin. In his sun temple at Abu Ghurab, of Akhenaten at East Karnak, the ancient festival might, perhaps, have been instituted to replace a ritual of murdering a pharaoh who was unable to continue to rule effectively because of age or condition. Eventually, Sed festivals were celebrated after a ruler had held the throne for thirty years. They primarily were held to rejuvenate the pharaohs strength and stamina while still sitting on the throne, there is clear evidence for early pharaohs celebrating the Heb Sed, such as the First Dynasty pharaoh Den and the Third Dynasty pharaoh Djoser. In the Pyramid of Djoser, there are two stones in his Heb Sed court, which is within his pyramid complex. He also is shown performing the Heb Sed in a false doorway inside his pyramid, one of the earliest Sed festivals for which there is substantial evidence is that of the Sixth Dynasty pharaoh Pepi I Meryre in the South Saqqara Stone Annal document. The most lavish, judging by surviving inscriptions, were those of Ramesses II, pharaohs who followed the typical tradition, but did not reign so long as 30 years had to be content with promises of millions of jubilees in the afterlife. Upon her husbands death, the eligible male in the royal family was a stepson. He was made a consort and, shortly thereafter, she was crowned pharaoh and he had appointed his daughter to the highest administrative office in his government, giving her a co-regents experience at ruling many aspects of his bureaucracy. This reflects an oracular assertion supported by the priests of Amun-Re that her father named her as heir to the throne, Akhenaten made many changes to religious practices in order to remove the stranglehold on the country by the priests of Amun-Re, whom he saw as corrupt. His religious reformation may have begun with his decision to celebrate his first Sed festival in his regnal year. His purpose may have been to gain an advantage against the temple, since a Sed-festival was a royal jubilee intended to reinforce the pharaohs divine powers. At the same time he moved his capital away from the city that these priests controlled. Media related to Sed festival at Wikimedia Commons

    wikivisually.com

    Египетская скульптура

    Древний Египет . Скульптура

    Около 5 тысячелетий назад в долине по нижнему течению Нила появились первые небольшие рабовладельческие государства. В конце 1У тысячелетия до нашей эры правители одного из них подчинили себе всю страну, создав единое царство с центром в городе Мемфисе, находившемся на левом берегу Нила, южнее того места, где сейчас расположен город Каир. Около 2800 г до н. э. правителем этого государства стал фараон Хуфу. Впоследствии его имя историки переделали в Хеопс. Так называют его и в наше время.

    Большую роль в формировании египетской культуры и государства сыграл ранний период египетской истории – время с 4000 до 3000гг до нашей эры и период раннего Царства 3000-2000гг до н. э.

    Главным объектом искусства становится человек. Грандиозные архитектурные сооружения – пирамиды поражают обобщенностью и законченностью форм. Величайшая из них - пирамида Хеопса - имеет высоту 146,6 м и сложена из 2300 каменных многотонных глыб.

    Вокруг пирамиды фараона располагались гробницы вельмож и чиновников. “Город мертвых” был своеобразной дорогой в загробный мир.

    Древние египтяне верили в загробную жизнь и старались снабдить уходящих в иной мир всем, что им требовалось при жизни. Египетская религия учила , что счастливая жизнь в загробном мире дается только знатным людям.

    Египтяне считали, что у человека несколько душ, и вечная жизнь после земной смерти даруется богами тем людям, за душами которых хорошо ухаживают священники-жрецы. Гробница и рассматривалась как пристанище одной из таких душ, которую египтяне называли “Ка” (двойник умершего человека).

    В то же время египетская религия была собранием различных культов, которые в течение многих веков подвергались многочисленным изменениям. В Египте почиталось множество богов. Некоторые из них были очень древними и походили больше на животных, чем на людей. Их изображения имеют собачьи головы, рога или другие признаки зверей.

    Но существовали и общеегипетские божества, храмы которых строились по всей стране: Гор, Ра, Осирис, Исида и другие.

    Согласно преданиям Осирис, прежде чем стать богом, царствовал в Египте , и память о его благодеяниях заставила его отождествлять с принципом добра, тогда как его убийца отождествляет зло. Эта же легенда имела и другое религиозное, моральное объяснение: Осирис есть заходящее солнце, убиваемое или поглощаемое темнотой - мраком.

    Исида – луна вбирает в себя и хранит, сколько может, лучи солнца,

    а Гор – восходящее солнце – мстит за отца, рассеивая темноту.

    Осирис часто изображался в виде мумии, его обычные атрибуты - крюк или кнут, символ власти, и эмблема Нила в виде крестика с ушком наверху. Иногда Осирис изображается с головой быка.

    Изображение богини Исиды - это голова с коровьими ушами, на которой возвышается здание- символ вселенной: она как бы стоит на богато украшенной чаше, символ влаги, без которой ничто не могло бы существовать на земле. Отличительные признаки Исиды – диск, двойная корона, означающая владычество над Верхним и Нижним Нилом, и рога на голове.

    Бог Тот изображается с головой птицы ибиса, он олицетворяет божественный разум, который сотворил вселенную. Он также и бог письмен, и организатор мира, разогнавший мрак и рассеявший потемки души. Кроме того, когда эта птица ест, её клюв образует вместе с лапами равносторонний треугольник, поэтому ибис олицетворяет геометрию и все науки, основанные на ней, вот почему ибис посвящен богу Тоту – богу божественного разума. В обязанности этого бога входило наблюдение за уровнем подъема воды во время разлива Нила. Иногда бога Тота изображают держащим зубчатую линейку- символ разлива Нила.

    Египетские фараоны часто отождествлялись с восходящим солнцем и получали тогда титул сыновей Амон-Ра. Следуя традиции, во время праздников и торжественных шествий в священной лодке несли статую бога, покрытую драгоценностями, украшениями, в сопровождении толп девушек и женщин. Египтяне утверждали, что солнце и луна только в лодке плавают вокруг земли.

    Почти каждому египетскому богу придавали, таким образом, формы, и каждому из них было посвящено таким образом какое - нибудь животное.

    До нас дошло всего несколько каменных табличек (их называют палетками) с изображениями первых фараонов. Сами египтяне с глубочайшим уважением относились к первым, ранним векам своей истории. Их воображение населяло эти времена великими мудрецами и могущественными царями.

    Как уже говорилось ранее рядом с пирамидами в “городе мертвых” находились гробницы знати. В экспозиции Эрмитажа выставлены каменные Рельефы из гробниц, в прошлом -ярко раскрашенные.

    Характер изображений и их композиционное решение дают представление о разработанном каноне. Так в рельефе из гробницы Нимаатра фигура восседающего в торжественной позе за столом вельможи в несколько раз превосходит по величине фигуры слуг, подающих ему различную снедь. Они размещены рядами, фризами, в несколько “этажей” и движутся в плоскости изображения. Трехмерное тело сведено к силуэту, четко очерченному контуром.

    Скульптор умело объединяет части фигуры, увиденные с разных точек зрения: голова и ноги - в профиль; глаза, плечи и грудь – в фас. Такое изображение людей характерно для египетского искусства.

    Второй памятник –каменный рельеф из гробницы Мирираанха - выполнен в иной технике: изображение не выпуклое, а врезанное в камень.

    В гробницах помещались статуи умерших. Семейная группа из гробницы Уджаанхджеса воспроизводит облик вельможи и его жены.

    Композиция выполнена в строгих рамках принятого канона: фронтальность более крупной фигуры Уджаанхджеса, плотно сдвинуты ноги, руки, лежащие на коленях, торжественно застылая поза и взгляд, обращенный прямо. Лаконично и обобщенно трактованные фигуры связаны с блоком камня. Это известняк, покрытый сверху гипсом и раскрашенный в соответствии с каноном: мужская фигура - в коричневый цвет, женская – в желтый.

    Замечательный скульптурный памятник египетской коллекции Эрмитажа – статуя фараона Аменемхета Ш, правившего в Египте в период ХХ1-ХУШ вв. до н.э. Это время объединения страны, роста городов, расцвета культуры. В официальной скульптуре, в статуях фараонов , наряду с идеализацией и каноническими чертами, ощущается стремление мастеров передать индивидуальность особенностей модели, интерес к выявлению портретных черт. Эти тенденции прослеживаются в гранитной статуе фараона Аменемхета Ш. Фигура фараона дана в традиционной позе.

    Характерный головной убор – немес - с изображением урея – священной змеи, охраняющей царя, - а также три его имени, начертанные в картуше (украшении в виде полуразвернутого свитка) на троне, напоминают, что перед нами владыка всего Египта. В лице фараона отмечены присущие именно этому человеку черты: узкие, глубоко посаженые глаза, большие скулы. Плотно сжатые тонкие губы, выступающий вперед подбородок придают лицу властное и суровое выражение. Сделанная из гранита, статуя, тем не менее, отчетливо передает мельчайшие детали одежды и головного убора, что говорит о высоком мастерстве скульптора.

    В Эрмитаже находится ряд значительных скульптурных произведений бытовых и культовых, в частности статуя богини Мут – Сохмет. Дочь верховного бога Ра, богиня войны и палящего зноя. Сохмет изображалась львиноголовой. В этом образе отражено стремление подчеркнуть могущество человека, сопоставив его с силой зверя. Согласно мифу, разгневанная на людей, переставших подчиняться её одряхлевшему отцу и творивших зло, богиня решила испепелить их жаром засухи. И лишь заступничество сжалившихся богов спасло людей от полного истребления.

    По их совету разлили ночью подкрашенное в красный цвет пиво, которое, приняв за кровь, выпила богиня. Миф порожден был реальностью: от засухи избавляют египтян красные, в период разлива, воды Нила.

    Грозная богиня держит в руках “анх” - знак символизирующий жизнь.

    Монументальная статуя Сохмет, исполненная в годы правления Аменхотепа Ш (его имя обозначено на троне) находилась среди подобных ей скульптур в крупнейшем храме того времени – Карнакском.

    Хочется остановиться еще на одной скульптурной группе – Статуе Аменемхеба с женой и матерью. Царский писец и градоначальник Фив был по тем временам великий человек. Скульптор, благодаря виртуозной обработке гранита передал мягкость и упругость форм человеческого тела, сохранив при этом многие традиционные черты (фронтальность, статичность, торжественность поз, связь с блоком камня и т.п.). Что особенно поражает - так это женские фигуры: и мать, и жена изображены в одинаковом возрасте. Это говорит о том, что древние египтяне верили в то, что в загробном мире людей ожидает вечная молодость и покой.

    Характерно и изображение древнего египетского архитектора, автора и первого строителя пирамид – Имхотепа, жившего около ХХУШ в. до н. э.

    Имхотеп знаменит ступенчатой пирамидой и заупокойным храмом фараона Джоссера в Саккаре. Небольшая по величине скульптура из черного базальта, завораживает изяществом и значительностью. Та же статичная, торжественная поза сидящего человека, свиток папируса на коленях, представляют нам человека, играющего очень важную роль в государстве.

    Как и сооруженная им пирамида, так и скульптура архитектора донесли до нас неповторимую красоту, сказочность и величие Древнего Египта.

    Литература:

    Рубинштейн Р.И. “ О чем рассказывают памятники древнего Востока”

    Москва, Просвещение, 1964

    “Мифы в искусстве старом и новом”,Историко-художественная монография (по Рене Менару)

    Санкт-Петербург, Лениздат, 1994

    Шапиро Ю.Г. “Эрмитаж”, путеводитель по выставкам.

    Искусство, Ленинградское отделение.

    Энциклопедия для детей. Всемирная история

    Москва, Аванта+, 1993

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