История современного города Афины.
Древние Афины
История современных Афин

Египет при XIX династии. 19 династия древнего египта


XIX Династия - Энциклопедия Древнего Египта

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XIX династия (Древний Египет) - это... Что такое XIX династия (Древний Египет)?

Статуя Рамсеса II — величайшего фараона XIX династии.

XIX династия (Египет) — древнеегипетская династия фараонов, правившая в 1295 (1298) — 1186 гг. до н. э.

Приход к власти и первые фараоны

Родоначальником девятнадцатой династии стал военачальник фараона Хоремхеба[1], Парамсес, сын Сети.

Парамсеса лично назначил своим преемником предыдущий фараон, и он взошёл на трон под именем Рамсес I.

Рамсес I совершил поход в Нубию на втором году правления, также при нём были выполнены некоторые пристройки к Карнакскому храму.

После смерти Рамсеса трон наследовал его сын, Сети I (1296—1279 гг. до н. э.), прославившийся своей впечатляющей гробницей в Долине Царей, которая является самой большой скальной гробницей в истории Египта.

Рамсес II

Сын Сети I, Рамсес II (1290—1212 гг. до н. э.) стал одним из величайших фараонов в истории Египта. Известен как архитектор — при нём было возведено множество храмов и статуй (например, Абу-Симбел), и как великий военачальник — совершил походы в Нубию и Азию. Знаменитая битва при Кадеше между египтянами и хеттами стала первой битвой в истории с масштабным использованием колесниц, по окончанию которой был подписан первый в истории мирный договор[2].

Известен Рамсес II и своей личной жизнью — от многочисленных жён он имел более 100 сыновей и дочерей. Рамсес II также был гораздо выше обычного египтянина, и жил около 90 лет, при средней продолжительности жизни в тот период в 30 лет. Кроме того, как видно по его мумии, он имел крайне редкий для древних египтян цвет волос — рыжий.

Мернептах и последние представители династии

Мернептах (1212—1202 гг. до н. э.) — один из множества сыновей Рамсеса II, стал фараоном лишь в 60 лет, настолько долго правил его отец. Отразил одно из первых нашествий «Народов моря». Мернептаху наследовал его сын, Сети II (1202—1195 гг. до н. э.), во время правления которого трон был узурпирован Аменмесом (1200—1196 гг. до н. э.), предположительно внуком Рамсеса II. После смерти Сети II трон унаследовал его сын Саптах (1194—1188 гг. до н. э.), при регентстве своей мачехи Таусерт, ставшей после смерти Саптаха последним фараоном XIX династии (1188—1186 гг. до н. э.). Правила она недолго и с её смертью началась анархия, в ходе которой к власти пришла XX династия.

Фараоны XIX династии

Родословное древо

 

 

 

 

Сети

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Рамсес I

 

Сатра

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Сети I

 

Туйя

 

 

 

Хаттусили III

 

Пудухепа

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Иситнофрет I

 

Рамсес II

 

 

 

Нефертари

 

 

 

Маатхорнефрура

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Аменхерхепешеф

 

Меритамон

 

Небеттауи

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Рамсес

 

Бент-Анат

 

Хаэмуас

 

Иситнофрет II

 

Мернептах

 

Тахат

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Тиа

 

Сети II

 

Таусерт

 

Аменмес

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Саптах

 

Примечания

Литература

  • История Древнего Египта (Под общей редакцией Хелен Штрудвик), БММ, 2007, ISBN 5-88353-269-1, 978-5-88353-269-5, 1-904687-85-7

dic.academic.ru

Египет при XIX династии

Растянувшаяся на долгие годы внутренняя борьба в Египте не могла не отразиться на отношениях с его переднеазиатскими владениями. Покорные раньше, местные князьки один за другим отпадают от Египта, который, как об этом свидетельствуют данные царского, дипломатического архива из Ахет-Атона (Эль-Амарны), был не в состоянии оказать своевременную военную помощь даже своим, теперь немногим, азиатским союзникам, подвергавшимся нападению соседей, больше не признававших власти египетского царя. Еще большей опасностью для позиций Египта в Передней Азии стало усилившееся в середине XV в. до х.э. в восточной части Малой Азии Хеттское государство, претендовавшее теперь на владения фараонов в Сирии и Палестине.

Сепаратистские стремления местных правителей, их междоусобная борьба, военное давление хеттов с севера, постоянное вторжение отрядов хапиру и полная пассивность египетского войска - все это привело к тому, что уже к концу царствования Аменхетепа IV огромное наследие Тутмосиса III в Передней Азии оказалось почти утраченным. Слабые преемники царя-реформатора, последние фараоны XVIII династии были еще не в состоянии упрочить внешнеполитические позиции Египта, хотя при Тутанхамене и был предпринят азиатский поход, возглавленный, возможно, Харемхебом. Став царем, энергичный Харемхеб основные свои усилия направил на внутреннюю консолидацию страны, в чем и достиг, по-видимому, значительного успеха. Именно прекращение внутренних распрей способствовало тому, что цари следующей, XIX династии смогли уже обратить свое внимание и на иноземные дела, возобновить широкие военные операции, целью которых было возвращение потерянных позиций в Передней Азии, где теперь прямое столкновение египтян и хеттов стало неизбежным.

Начало больших военных походов за пределы Египта было положено вторым царем новой династии Сети I, возглавившим Египет после смерти основателя династии, своего отца Рамсеса I, пробывшего на троне лишь два года.

Многие десятилетия, со времени грозного Аменхетепа II, не видела Передняя Азия египетского царя во главе войска, и вот в первый же год правления Сети I сам повел его в большой азиатский поход, приведший к восстановлению власти Египта вплоть до крепости Мегиддо, хорошо нам известной еще по походам Тутмосиса III. Совершив затем карательную экспедицию в глубь Нубии и разгромив к западу от Дельты ливийские племена, Сети I вновь отправляется за Синай. На этот раз египетские войска вторгаются в долину Оронта и продвигаются к г. Кадеш (Кинза), уже давно ставшему одним из опорных пунктов хеттов в Передней Азии. Впервые египетские и хеттские войска встали друг против друга, однако авангардные бои армий двух держав, претендовавших на власть в Передней Азии, при Сети I явились только пробой сил перед решительной схваткой.

К концу XIV или началу XIII в. до х.э., после смерти Сети I, во главе окрепшей египетской державы становится его 22-летний сын Рамсес II, мечтавший восстановить и расширить переднеазиатские владения Египта. Задача нанести поражение хеттам была не из легких, так как египетские войска впервые встретили здесь не разрозненных князьков Сирии и Палестины и даже не их неустойчивую коалицию, как при Тутмосисе III, - противником Египта было могущественное, находящееся в периоде расцвета Хеттское государство с его мощной армией, подчиненной лишь одному военачальнику - хеттскому царю Муваталли, который сам не прочь был сокрушить своих соперников в Передней Азии. Насколько ожесточенной и трудной была эта борьба, можно судить по дошедшим до нас разнообразным источникам, среди которых особое место занимает подробное красочное описание первой битвы Рамсеса II с хеттами у стен г. Кадеш.

Весной пятого года своего царствования (возможно, в 1312 г. до х.э.), собрав большое войско, Рамсес II выступил из пограничной крепости Чару. После 29-дневного похода передовой отряд, возглавляемый самим царем, разбил лагерь на расстоянии одного перехода от Кадеша, возле стен которого находилась армия хеттов и союзных сирийских и малоазийских царьков.

Введенный в заблуждение подосланными в египетский лагерь хеттскими лазутчиками, которые уверяли, что хетты, испугавшись египетского войска, спешно отступили далеко на север от Кадеша, Рамсес II, не дожидаясь подхода всей армии, только с передовым отрядом двинулся к Кадешу и вступил в битву с хеттами, в которой чуть не погиб вместе со всем передовым отрядом. Счастливая случайность - неожиданное появление на поле брани еще одного отряда египтян, новобранцев, посланных ранее царем вдоль морского побережья для последующего воссоединения с основными силами, - спасла положение. Контратаки хеттских колесниц не имели успеха - они лишь мешали друг другу, сцепляясь колесами в узком проходе, пехоту же Муваталли почему-то держал в резерве. Египтяне продержались до вечера, когда к Кадешу подошел наконец второй отряд их основных сил. Противники на этот раз так и не смогли одолеть друг друга.

Лишь после пятнадцатилетней тяжелой борьбы Рамсесу II удалось вытеснить хеттов из Южной Сирии, захватить Кадеш и многие другие города, которые к этому времени египтяне хорошо научились брать штурмом.

Северная же часть бывших владений Тутмосиса III осталась за хеттами. На 21-м году царствования Рамсеса II (ок. 1296 или 1270 г. до х.э.) между ним и хеттским царем Хаттусили III был заключен мирный договор, скрепленный позже женитьбой египетского царя на дочери царя хеттов.

После войны с хеттами Рамсес II правил Египтом еще более 45 лет (по долголетию у него не было соперников, за исключением Пиопи II - царя далекого Древнего царства). Следуя традиции предшественников, царь выбирает местом своего постоянного пребывания Нижний Египет; на востоке Дельты им возводится роскошная царская резиденция, город, носивший имя Пер-Рамсес ("Дом Рамсеса"). Известна широкая строительная деятельность царя в Фивах, Абидосе, Нубии, где по его приказу был вырублен в отвесной скале огромный пещерный храм с гигантскими статуями самого фараона, изваянными в той же скале по обеим сторонам от входа в скальное святилище. И сейчас знаменитый Абу-Симбельский храм, распиленный на части и восстановленный затем над разлившимися водами большого асуанского водохранилища, поражает своим величием.

Рамсес II пережил многих своих сыновей [1], и после его смерти царем стал тринадцатый его сын, уже немолодой Мернептах, при котором (в последней четверти XIII в. до х.э.) на Египет с моря и через Палестину обрушилось нашествие "народов моря", совпавшее с крупным вторжением в Западную Дельту ливийских племен. Эта первая волна "народов моря", в состав которых, возможно, входили племена западной части Малой Азии и островов Восточного Средиземноморья, была отбита египетскими войсками, возглавляемыми Мернептахом. После его смерти в Египте произошли какие-то серьезные внутренние потрясения, что привело к смене династии.

Примечание:

[1] В конце жизни Рамсес II был женат на собственной дочери. В Египте (так же как в Эламе и некоторых других древневосточных царствах) был распространен обычай женитьбы царей на своих сестрах, чтобы не создавать свойственников среди знати, которые могли бы быть опасны, претендуя на престол по женской линии. Но к концу жизни Рамсеса II его сестер, видимо, уже не оставалось в живых.

Список литературы

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XVII Династия - Энциклопедия Древнего Египта

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2015November 24, 2015November 25, 2015November 26, 2015November 27, 2015November 28, 2015November 29, 2015November 30, 2015December 1, 2015December 2, 2015December 3, 2015December 4, 2015December 5, 2015December 6, 2015December 7, 2015December 8, 2015December 9, 2015December 10, 2015December 11, 2015December 12, 2015December 13, 2015December 14, 2015December 15, 2015December 16, 2015December 17, 2015December 18, 2015December 19, 2015December 20, 2015December 21, 2015December 22, 2015December 23, 2015December 24, 2015December 25, 2015December 26, 2015December 27, 2015December 28, 2015December 29, 2015December 30, 2015December 31, 2015January 1, 2016January 2, 2016January 3, 2016January 4, 2016January 5, 2016January 6, 2016January 7, 2016January 8, 2016January 9, 2016January 10, 2016January 11, 2016January 12, 2016January 13, 2016January 14, 2016January 15, 2016January 16, 2016January 17, 2016January 18, 2016January 19, 2016January 20, 2016January 21, 2016January 22, 2016January 23, 2016January 24, 2016January 25, 2016January 26, 2016January 27, 2016January 28, 2016January 29, 2016January 30, 2016January 31, 2016February 1, 2016February 2, 2016February 3, 2016February 4, 2016February 5, 2016February 6, 2016February 7, 2016February 8, 2016February 9, 2016February 10, 2016February 11, 2016February 12, 2016February 13, 2016February 14, 2016February 15, 2016February 16, 2016February 17, 2016February 18, 2016February 19, 2016February 20, 2016February 21, 2016February 22, 2016February 23, 2016February 24, 2016February 25, 2016February 26, 2016February 27, 2016February 28, 2016February 29, 2016March 1, 2016March 2, 2016March 3, 2016March 4, 2016March 5, 2016March 6, 2016March 7, 2016March 8, 2016March 9, 2016March 10, 2016March 11, 2016March 12, 2016March 13, 2016March 14, 2016March 15, 2016March 16, 2016March 17, 2016March 18, 2016March 19, 2016March 20, 2016March 21, 2016March 22, 2016March 23, 2016March 24, 2016March 25, 2016March 26, 2016March 27, 2016March 28, 2016March 29, 2016March 30, 2016March 31, 2016April 1, 2016April 2, 2016April 3, 2016April 4, 2016April 5, 2016April 6, 2016April 7, 2016April 8, 2016April 9, 2016April 10, 2016April 11, 2016April 12, 2016April 13, 2016April 14, 2016April 15, 2016April 16, 2016April 17, 2016April 18, 2016April 19, 2016April 20, 2016April 21, 2016April 22, 2016April 23, 2016April 24, 2016April 25, 2016April 26, 2016April 27, 2016April 28, 2016April 29, 2016April 30, 2016May 1, 2016May 2, 2016May 3, 2016May 4, 2016May 5, 2016May 6, 2016May 7, 2016May 8, 2016May 9, 2016May 10, 2016May 11, 2016May 12, 2016May 13, 2016May 14, 2016May 15, 2016May 16, 2016May 17, 2016May 18, 2016May 19, 2016May 20, 2016May 21, 2016May 22, 2016May 23, 2016May 24, 2016May 25, 2016May 26, 2016May 27, 2016May 28, 2016May 29, 2016May 30, 2016May 31, 2016June 1, 2016June 2, 2016June 3, 2016June 4, 2016June 5, 2016June 6, 2016June 7, 2016June 8, 2016June 9, 2016June 10, 2016June 11, 2016June 12, 2016June 13, 2016June 14, 2016June 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28, 2016August 29, 2016August 30, 2016August 31, 2016September 1, 2016September 2, 2016September 3, 2016September 4, 2016September 5, 2016September 6, 2016September 7, 2016September 8, 2016September 9, 2016September 10, 2016September 11, 2016September 12, 2016September 13, 2016September 14, 2016September 15, 2016September 16, 2016September 17, 2016September 18, 2016September 19, 2016September 20, 2016September 21, 2016September 22, 2016September 23, 2016September 24, 2016September 25, 2016September 26, 2016September 27, 2016September 28, 2016September 29, 2016September 30, 2016October 1, 2016October 2, 2016October 3, 2016October 4, 2016October 5, 2016October 6, 2016October 7, 2016October 8, 2016October 9, 2016October 10, 2016October 11, 2016October 12, 2016October 13, 2016October 14, 2016October 15, 2016October 16, 2016October 17, 2016October 18, 2016October 19, 2016October 20, 2016October 21, 2016October 22, 2016October 23, 2016October 24, 2016October 25, 2016October 26, 2016October 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2017February 26, 2017February 27, 2017February 28, 2017March 1, 2017March 2, 2017March 3, 2017March 4, 2017March 5, 2017March 6, 2017March 7, 2017March 8, 2017March 9, 2017March 10, 2017March 11, 2017March 12, 2017March 13, 2017March 14, 2017March 15, 2017March 16, 2017March 17, 2017March 18, 2017March 19, 2017March 20, 2017March 21, 2017March 22, 2017March 23, 2017March 24, 2017March 25, 2017March 26, 2017March 27, 2017March 28, 2017March 29, 2017March 30, 2017March 31, 2017April 1, 2017April 2, 2017April 3, 2017April 4, 2017April 5, 2017April 6, 2017April 7, 2017April 8, 2017April 9, 2017April 10, 2017April 11, 2017April 12, 2017April 13, 2017April 14, 2017April 15, 2017April 16, 2017April 17, 2017

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XXII Династия - Энциклопедия Древнего Египта

June 28, 2015June 29, 2015June 30, 2015July 1, 2015July 2, 2015July 3, 2015July 4, 2015July 5, 2015July 6, 2015July 7, 2015July 8, 2015July 9, 2015July 10, 2015July 11, 2015July 12, 2015July 13, 2015July 14, 2015July 15, 2015July 16, 2015July 17, 2015July 18, 2015July 19, 2015July 20, 2015July 21, 2015July 22, 2015July 23, 2015July 24, 2015July 25, 2015July 26, 2015July 27, 2015July 28, 2015July 29, 2015July 30, 2015July 31, 2015August 1, 2015August 2, 2015August 3, 2015August 4, 2015August 5, 2015August 6, 2015August 7, 2015August 8, 2015August 9, 2015August 10, 2015August 11, 2015August 12, 2015August 13, 2015August 14, 2015August 15, 2015August 16, 2015August 17, 2015August 18, 2015August 19, 2015August 20, 2015August 21, 2015August 22, 2015August 23, 2015August 24, 2015August 25, 2015August 26, 2015August 27, 2015August 28, 2015August 29, 2015August 30, 2015August 31, 2015September 1, 2015September 2, 2015September 3, 2015September 4, 2015September 5, 2015September 6, 2015September 7, 2015September 8, 2015September 9, 2015September 10, 2015September 11, 2015September 12, 2015September 13, 2015September 14, 2015September 15, 2015September 16, 2015September 17, 2015September 18, 2015September 19, 2015September 20, 2015September 21, 2015September 22, 2015September 23, 2015September 24, 2015September 25, 2015September 26, 2015September 27, 2015September 28, 2015September 29, 2015September 30, 2015October 1, 2015October 2, 2015October 3, 2015October 4, 2015October 5, 2015October 6, 2015October 7, 2015October 8, 2015October 9, 2015October 10, 2015October 11, 2015October 12, 2015October 13, 2015October 14, 2015October 15, 2015October 16, 2015October 17, 2015October 18, 2015October 19, 2015October 20, 2015October 21, 2015October 22, 2015October 23, 2015October 24, 2015October 25, 2015October 26, 2015October 27, 2015October 28, 2015October 29, 2015October 30, 2015October 31, 2015November 1, 2015November 2, 2015November 3, 2015November 4, 2015November 5, 2015November 6, 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2016October 10, 2016October 11, 2016October 12, 2016October 13, 2016October 14, 2016October 15, 2016October 16, 2016October 17, 2016October 18, 2016October 19, 2016October 20, 2016October 21, 2016October 22, 2016October 23, 2016October 24, 2016October 25, 2016October 26, 2016October 27, 2016October 28, 2016October 29, 2016October 30, 2016October 31, 2016November 1, 2016November 2, 2016November 3, 2016November 4, 2016November 5, 2016November 6, 2016November 7, 2016November 8, 2016November 9, 2016November 10, 2016November 11, 2016November 12, 2016November 13, 2016November 14, 2016November 15, 2016November 16, 2016November 17, 2016November 18, 2016November 19, 2016November 20, 2016November 21, 2016November 22, 2016November 23, 2016November 24, 2016November 25, 2016November 26, 2016November 27, 2016November 28, 2016November 29, 2016November 30, 2016December 1, 2016December 2, 2016December 3, 2016December 4, 2016December 5, 2016December 6, 2016December 7, 2016December 8, 2016December 9, 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Википедия - свободная энциклопедия

Избранная статья

Кассиодор (лат. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator, между 480—490, Сцилациум, Бруттий — между 585—590, там же) — римский писатель-панегирист, историк и экзегет, государственный деятель во время правления короля остготов Теодориха Великого и его преемников, вершиной его карьеры стала должность префекта претория Италии.

Происходил из сирийского рода, поселившегося в Италии в IV веке, три поколения его предшественников занимали разнообразные государственные посты. Кассиодор начал карьеру придворного панегириста в первом десятилетии VI века. После падения Остготского королевства Кассиодор, по-видимому, полтора десятилетия провёл в Константинополе, в 554 году удалился в родовое имение на юге Италии, где основал просветительский центр, монастырь Виварий, в котором занялся реализацией своей образовательной и культурной программы. В библиотеке Вивария имелись все основные произведения позднеримской христианской литературы, а также многие классические сочинения; в монастыре осуществлялись переводы с греческого языка, которым сам Кассиодор владел слабо. Последние труды — о правописании и исчислении даты Пасхи — написаны в 93-летнем возрасте.

Принципиальная обращённость произведений Кассиодора к современникам обеспечила популярность его трудов, его наследие широко использовали Павел Диакон, Беда Достопочтенный, Гинкмар Реймский, Алкуин, Рабан Мавр, Марсилий Падуанский. Традиция скриптория и школы Вивария были продолжены в Монте-Кассино и аббатстве Боббио.

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XXVI Династия - Энциклопедия Древнего Египта

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