История современного города Афины.
Древние Афины
История современных Афин

Поздний период. Поздний период древнего египта


Поздний Период - Энциклопедия Древнего Египта

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Новое царство и поздний период в истории Древнего Египта — Мегаобучалка

Второй переходный период сменился периодом Нового царства, и время упадка Древнего Египта сменилось периодом расцвета государства. Первым фараоном Нового царства считается Яхмос I. Хронологические рамки Нового царства определяются 1552—1069 до н. э. Это самый известный период Египта, эпоха создания шедевров древнеегипетского искусства, укрепления древнеегипетской государственности и становления Египта как «сверхдержавы» древних времён. Восстановление независимости Египта

Среднее царство Египта ослабло из-за внутренних катаклизмов и напряжённости внутри социума, и было захвачено интервентами – гиксосами. И хотя к 1640 году до н. э. вся страна была захвачена узурпаторами, на юге в городе Фивы сохранялся мощнейший очаг сопротивления. Начиная с правления Таа I и Таа II Секененры противостояние Фив и Авариса приняло характер открытого военного конфликта, и при Камосе (1555—1552 до н. э.) фиванцы, наконец, собрали достаточно сил, чтобы начать изгнание гиксосов из страны.

Возможный союз кушитов и гиксосов против Фив удалось нейтрализовать, и в 1552 году до н.э. фараон Яхмос I (1552—1527 до н. э.) положил конец владычеству захватчиков в Египте. Столица гиксосов Аварис была взята после трёхлетней изнурительной осады, а в 1549 году был захвачен опорный пункт в Палестине под названием Шарухена. Гиксосы были рассеяны среди народов Ближнего Востока. Это и было началом Нового царства Египта (1152-1069 до н.э.) – самой великой эпохи древнеегипетской цивилизации. Яхмос подавил мятежи нубийцев и Тетиана, и распространил власть своей династии на весь Египет. Все фараоны, созданной им династии (1552—1305 до н. э.), были прямыми потомками предшествовавшей ей XVII династии, но по манефоновской традиции она выделяется в отдельную династию.) Походы Яхмоса нельзя в полной мере считать завоевательными, так как они не носили агрессивного характера и имели своей целью оборону и безопасность южной и северной границы. Но Яхмосом была создана высокоэффективная армия, что позволило и в каком-то смысле обрекло его преемников вести экспансию. Египетская экспансия привела к накоплению богатств, и жречество всячески пыталось эти богатства присвоить себе. После каждого военного похода высшие чины сановников требовали львиную долю награбленного имущества, а потом и вовсе стали позиционировать себя главнейшими лицами страны, выше самого фараона. Возникла необходимость религиозной реформыи предпосылки к монотеистической религии. Около 1359 до н. э., при фараоне-реформаторе Аменхотепе IV (1364—1347 до н. э.), взявшим себе имя Эхнатон, что означает «угодный Атону», возник культ поклонения солнечному диску Атону. Эхнатон был первым в мировой истории достоверно известным монотеистом. Реформы Эхнатона на время приструнили древнеегипетское жречество, однако сильно потрясли Египет. К тому же фараон был убеждённым пацифистом, и его мирная политика привела к потере обширных азиатских владений, вскоре занятых хеттами из Малой Азии. Взгляды Аменхотепа IV опережали время на тысячи лет, и после его смерти в 1347 г. до н. э. культ Атона был запрещён бывшим жрецом Атона Эйе и военачальником Хоремхебом, регентами малолетнего (дожившего до девятнадцатилетнего возраста) наследника Эхнатона Тутанхамона (1347—1337 до н. э.), Столицу перенесли обратно в Фивы, а сам фараон был объявлен еретиком. После смерти Рамсеса III, правители династии носили имя Рамсес, потому и получили название Рамессиды, однако не смогли сравниться в достижениях со своими великими предками, и не обладали свойственной им удачей. Авторитет некогда могучего государства упал, а бюрократический аппарат стал распадаться. После смерти Рамсеса XI (1069 до н. э.) XX династия прекратилась: жрец Амона-Ра Херихор провозгласил себя новым фараоном (этот факт ныне оспаривается; более того, даже известно, что Херихор мог умереть раньше Рамсеса XI), что дало начало Третьему переходному периоду (1069—664 до н. э.). Новое царство Египта стало вершиной развития древнеегипетской цивилизации.Наследие двух тысячелетий развития Египта было не только собрано воедино, но и появились уникальные явления типа вселенского государства Тутмоса III, или феномена атонистской революции, которая оставила глубочайший след в религии и искусстве. Египетское государство можно считать первой в мире империей, однако некоторые специалисты считают, что поскольку в подчинённых Египту землях не было установленной жесткой централизованной системы управления, то его нельзя считать классической империей, поскольку в обычном понимании империи имеется в виду именно централизованная форма управления. Новое царство Древнего Египта соответствует второму (после Среднего царства) универсальному государству египетской цивилизации. В марксистской историографии, основанной на оригинальных теориях Маркса и Энгельса, Новое царство считается периодом попытки становления античного рабовладельческого строя на базе архаического (называемого азиатским по причине обнаружения его пережитков у племён Индии).

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Поздний период (Древний Египет) - Википедия

Дата Событие
664 до н. э. Кушитских правителей сменяет саисский фараон Псамметих I, сын Нехо. Начало объединения Египта под властью XXVI династии из Саиса.
664—525 до н. э. Правление XXVI (саисской) династии в Египте. «Саисский ренессанс» — последний самостоятельный подъём египетской цивилизации.
664—610 до н. э. Правление в Египте фараона Псамметиха I, восстановившего былое величие государства путём подавления власти нубийцев, ассирийцев и части жречества с помощью ионийских и карийских наёмников.
664—655 до н. э. Процесс объединения Египта Псамметихом I.
664—663 до н. э. Временное завоевание Фив Тануатамоном. Ашшурбанапал I изгоняет Тануатамона из Фив. Ассирийцы грабят город. Эфиопы вынуждены окончательно отступить на юг.
Ок. 663 до н. э. Через захваченный ассирийцами Египет в остальные регионы Африки попадает техника обработки железа.
661 до н. э. Окончательное изгнание остатков эфиопской армии из Египта ассирийцами.
610—595 до н. э. Правление в Египте Нехо II — последнего довольно преуспевающего египетского фараона, осуществившего попытку соединить Нил с Красным морем «каналом Нехо» (по свидетельству Геродота, при его сооружении погибло до 120 000 человек).
609 до н. э. На недолгое время до возвышения Навуходоносора II фараон Нехо захватывает Восточное Средиземноморье, называемое вавилонянами Заречьем.
Июнь 609 до н. э. Сражение при Мегиддо: пытающийся помочь разваливавшейся Ассирии Нехо II разбивает иудеев, ввязавшихся в конфликт. В битве погибает иудейский царь Иосия.
Октябрь 607 до н. э. Против египетского гарнизона в Заречье выступил вавилонский царь Набопаласар.
Май 605 до н. э. Вавилоняне, скифы и мидяне наголову разбивают египетско-ассирийские войска под Каркемишем в Сирии. Египтяне теряют более 10 000 человек.
Декабрь 604 до н. э. Скифы берут Аскалон на самой границе Египта.
601 до н. э. Навуходоносор II пытается напасть на Египет.
600—597 до н. э. Фараон Нехо II отправляет финикийскую флотилию в экспедицию вокруг побережья Африки. Финикийцы успешно огибают всю Африку.
Ок. 600 до н. э. В Напате коронуется новый царь кушитов .
591 до н. э. Создание антивавилонской коалиции в составе Египта, Лидии и государств Восточного Средиземноморья.
Ок. 590 до н. э. Цари Нубии переносят свою столицу южнее Напаты, в Мероэ (Напата остаётся коронационным центром), и создают свою культуру, во многом зависевшую от египетской. Население Мероэ ведёт торговлю с Египтом, Аравией, Грецией и Индией. Особенно ощущается влияние Египта в мероитских постройках — храмах, дворцах и небольших пирамидах.
Осень 589 до н. э. Поход Псамметиха II против эфиопов. Греческие наёмники доходят до Абу-Симбела, где оставляют свои надписи.
589—570 до н. э. Правление фараона Априя, опиравшегося на греческих (карийских и ионийских) наёмников, расселившившихся в Дельте Нила, где основаны греческие торговые фактории в Навкратисе, Пелусии и Дафнах.
582 до н. э. Мир между Вавилоном и Саисским Египтом.
Ок. В Мероэ к власти приходит новая династия, представленная Гарсииотефом и Настесеном.
570—566 до н. э. Гражданская война в Египте: восставший народ свергает, а затем казнит, Априя, потерпевшего поражение в Киренаике, за его слишком проэллинские взгляды. Навуходоносор II вторгается в Египет и доходит до Фив, но затем, понимая, что Априй не сможет удержаться на троне, возвращается в Вавилон. Руководитель восстания, военачальник Амасис II, коронуется фараоном.
570—526 до н. э. Правление фараона Амасиса II (Яхмоса II) в Египте. В начале своего правления он отменяет льготы греческим купцам, но впоследствии старается поддерживать дружные отношения с полисами материковой и островной Греции, а также Киренаики. Неудачные оборонные союзы с царем Лидии Крёзом и Поликратом Самосским против персов.
526—525 до н. э. Правление фараона Псамметиха III. Завоевание Египта персами.
525—332 до н. э. Персидское правление

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